Lista de TODOS los phrasal verbs para aprobar el FIRST B2

Los¬†phrasal verbs¬†en ingl√©s nos traen por la calle de la amargura: hay millones, son confusos, su significado es cambiante y no hay manera de atreverse a usarlos ya que presentan una serie de inconvenientes que hacen de ellos una aut√©ntica pesadilla, sin ofrecer ning√ļn beneficio a la hora de usarlos.

Sin embargo,¬†esto es debido a un mal enfoque ya que siempre os lo han presentado como algo abstracto, una lista interminable pero finita – ¬Ņtal vez? -, como si de ah√≠ se le pudiera presuponer alg√ļn tipo sentido pr√°ctico. Todo esto sin ning√ļn tipo de explicaci√≥n que aporte algo y deje de a√Īadir confusi√≥n al ya enquistado problema.

Todo lo que crees de los phrasal verbs, seguramente no sea verdad. En realidad los phrasal verbs no existen. Es algo que m√°s bien que se ha llamado as√≠ para que el estudiante del idioma lo entienda, ya que su origen se remonta al ingl√©s antiguo con m√ļltiples variaciones regionales y diferentes etimolog√≠as, entre otras vicisitudes, que en cualquier caso a d√≠a se usan por comodidad, pero nunca en textos acad√©micos ni si queremos usar un tono formal. Y si bien es cierto que la mayor√≠a de nativos los usan porque ya se los saben, con el tiempo, es algo que se puede volver intuitivo, hasta el punto de que te salgan solos. Y te parezcan hasta divertidos.

Qué es un phrasal verb

Seg√ļn Oxford Dictionary, un¬†phrasal verb¬†es:

‚ÄúUna¬†expresi√≥n idiom√°tica¬†que consiste en la combinaci√≥n de un¬†verbo¬†y otro elemento, normalmente una¬†preposici√≥n‚ÄĚ.

Lo que no te cuentan nunca es que este elemento est√° ah√≠ modificando el significado original del verbo de una manera, a priori, intuitiva. Aunque no siempre. Pero s√≠ en aquellos que t√ļ necesitas para obtener el nivel de B2 que requiere Cambridge.

He aquí unos ejemplos:

  • turn on / turn off: se usa como nuestro espa√Īol encender y apagar, ya que turn por s√≠ mismo es poco m√°s que el movimiento de dar una vuelta en el sentido de girar. Pero es la preposici√≥n lo que le da sentido. Y es a esta a quien debes de prestar atenci√≥n. Normalmente, las preposiciones act√ļan desde un sentido l√≥gico. Siempre y cuando evites traducciones imposible.
  • put on/off: poner / quitar
  • turn up/down: subir / bajar
  • work in/out: introducir / solucionar

Evidentemente, este significado es aproximado y solo como gu√≠a para hacernos entender, ya que este casi siempre depender√° del contexto. Y lo peor que puedes hacer es buscarle un equivalente en espa√Īol, ya que esto no te dejar√° que integres como funcionan al limitarte a una definici√≥n fija, sin contexto. De hecho la primera regla de oro es: NO LOS TRADUZCAS al espa√Īol, ya que no tenemos nada que se le parezca en la lengua de Cervantes.

Y si bien es cierto que la mayor√≠a de nativos los usan porque ya se los saben. Pero ya ver√°s que estos ¬ęverbs¬Ľ act√ļan como si fuesen piezas de LEGO, que se van integrando con el resto de elementos formando una frase, logrando una comunicaci√≥n espec√≠fica, f√°cil, directa. Adem√°s se presta a que t√ļ participes, ya que no hay normas fijas. Es as√≠, que muchos phrasal verbs se van creando sobre la marcha. Algunas veces para satisfacer alguna tendencia o expresar algo en concreto ya que se presta mucho a los juegos de palabras y la creaci√≥n de nuevos conceptos – sin que estos tengan que pasar por ninguna instituci√≥n que decida qu√© palabras podemos usar y cuales son las reglas para poder hacerlo. En esto el ingl√©s es imbatible.

lista de phrasal verbs b2 cambridge

Tipos de phrasal verbs

Phrasal Verbs sin objeto directo

 No necesitan ni de algo something (sth.) ni de alguien someone (sb.). Tienen sentido completo. 

  • Wake up: I need to wake up early when I work.
  • Stand up: Students used tostand up¬†every time a teacher entered the classroom.
  • Sit down: You can sit down if there is a chair.
  • Go out: You can go out when you finish your homework.

 Phrasal Verbs con objeto directo

 Necesitan de algo something (sth.) o alguien someone (sb.) sobre quien recae la acción.

  • Pick up something (sth.) or someone (sb.)
  • Come out (sth.) or (sb.)
  • Come back (sth.) or (sb.)
  • Look after (sth.) or (sb.)
  • Look for () or (sb.)
  • Switch on/off (sb.)

Lista de todos los phrasal verbs para el examen FIRST B2

Phrasal VerbSignificado
AGREE WITHTo have the same opinion as
ASK someone OUTTo invite someone on a date
BACK someone UPTo support someone
BE OUT OF sthgTo not have
BREAK DOWNTo stop working
BREAK OUTTo start suddenly (about something unpleasant)
BREAK UPTo end a relationship
BRING ABOUTTo cause something to happen
BRING someone DOWNTo make someone feel sad or depressed
BRING sthg UPTo mention casually
CALL OFFCancel
CARRY ONContinue
CATCH UP WITHTo update news with sb
CHECK INTo register at a hotel or airport
CHECK someone OUTTo look at someone because you find them attractive
CLEAN something UPTo tidy and clean
COME ACROSSTo find by chance
COME DOWNTo decrease or reduce
COME UP AGAINSTTo face a challenge
COOL OFFTo become less angry or heated
COPE WITHTo deal successfully with a difficult situation
COUNT ON somebodyTo rely on someone
COVER UPTo hide a wrongdoing or mistake
CUT BACK ON somethingTo reduce the amount of something
CUT DOWNTo reduce the quantity of something
CUT something OFFTo remove by cutting
DEAL WITHTo resolve or take action
DO UPTo fasten; to dress in a particular way
DROP INTo visit informally and unexpectedly
DROP BYTo visit casually or unexpectedly
DROP somene OFFTo take someone to a place and leave them there
DROP OVERTo visit someone
DRY OUTTo become completely dry
END UPTo finally be in a particular place or situation
FACE UP TOTo accept and deal with a difficult reality
FALL APARTTo break into pieces; also, to fail or collapse
FALL INTo collapse inwardly
FALL OUT OFTo no longer be in love or in an agreement
FIGURE OUTTo understand or solve something
FILL something INTo complete a form or document
FIND OUTTo obtain knowledge of sth
GET AWAYTo escape or go somewhere to relax or have fun
GET BACK AT someoneTo take revenge on someone
GET BETTERTo improve in health or skill
GET BYTo manage to live or do a particular thing using the money, knowledge, equipment, etc., that you have
GET DOWN TOTo start working on
GET LOSTTo go away; also used to tell someone to go away in a rude way
GET ONTo enter a bus, train, plane, etc.
GET ON WITHTo have a good relationship with someone
GET TOTo arrive at a place
GET TOGETHERTo meet and spend time together
GET UPTo rise from bed
GIVE something AWAYTo give something for free
GIVE something UPTo quit a habit
GO AGAINSTTo oppose
GO INTo enter
GO OVERTo review or check
GROW APARTTo become less close over time
GROW UPTo become an adult
HAND something INTo submit
HAND something OUTTo distribute
HANG ONTo wait a short time
HOLD something BACKTo restrain
JOIN INTo participate
KEEP something FROM someoneTo not tell someone about something
KEEP UP WITHTo stay at the same level as someone or something
LET someone DOWNTo disappoint someone
LET OFFTo not punish someone who has done something wrong, or to not punish them severely
LOOK DOWN ON somebodyTo think that you are better than someone
LOOK INTOTo investigate
LOOK FORWARD TOTo feel excited about something
LOOK OUTTo be careful or watchful
LOOK something OVERTo examine or review
LOOK UP TO someoneTo admire or respect someone
MAKE something UPTo invent a story or lie
MIX something UPTo confuse one thing with another
PASS AWAYTo die
PASS OUTTo faint or lose consciousness
PICK something OUTTo choose
PICK UPTo lift; also to collect someone or something
PLUG INTo connect to a power supply
PUT something OFFTo postpone
PUT something OUTTo extinguish
PUT UP WITHTo tolerate
RUN INTO someoneTo meet someone unexpectedly
RUN OUT OF somethingTo use all of something and have no more left
SET OFF / SET OUTTo start a journey
SHOW OFFTo display in a boastful manner
SPLIT UPTo end a relationship or partnership
STAY UPTo remain awake
TAKE AWAYTo remove
TAKE someone OUTTo go on a date or outing with someone
TAKE BACKTo retract a statement or to return something
TAKE OFFTo remove something; also, for an aircraft to begin flight
TEAR something UPTo rip into pieces
THINK something OVERTo consider
THROW something AWAYTo dispose of
TURN something DOWNTo reject
TURN INTOTo become or transform into
TURN ONTo activate or start a machine; also to excite or interest someone
TURN UPTo arrive, often unexpectedly; also, to increase the volume or intensity
TRY something OUTTo test or experiment with something
USE something UPTo use all of something
WORK OUTTo exercise; also to solve a problem
WORK something OUTTo devise or figure out

Lo ideal es que, aparte de estos ejemplos, t√ļ mismo pruebes a crear phrasal verbs, para darle m√°s sentido y hacerlos m√°s ‚Äúmemorables‚ÄĚ, por as√≠ decirlo.

No soy muy fan de memorizar vocabulario ni hacer listas de nada, porque sin contexto, la mayor√≠a de las veces, lo √ļnico que vas a conseguir es demorar que aprendas c√≥mo funciona un idioma, crey√©ndote que para aprenderlo necesitas ser capaz de saber traducir cualquier cosa a tu idioma y de manera equidistante. Sin embargo, creo que si que te puede resultar pr√°ctico aprenderte de memoria algunos de los m√°s comunes phrasal verbs y usar aquellos que te resulten m√°s f√°ciles y que ya conozcas.

Ahora que ya sabes que los hay de dos tipos, debes olvidarte primero de los m√°s complejos, poniendo especial atenci√≥n en aquellos de uso m√°s com√ļn y, sobre todo, empezando a fijarte en las preposiciones. Ver√°s c√≥mo deja de parecerte algo tan cr√≠ptico, sino una forma muy √ļtil que hace la comunicaci√≥n m√°s f√°cil y espec√≠fica en determinados contextos de informalidad.

Ejercicios de phrasal verbs para estudiantes de B2 – Cambridge

A continuación, te vamos a ofrecer unos cuantos ejercicios para que practiques con los phrasal verbs. Después de cada ejercicio, te vamos a dar las respuestas correctas para que puedas corregirlos adecuadamente:

Ejercicio A. Complete the sentences below, using a phrasal verb from the box in its correct form.

BREAK INTO – CROSS OUT – EAT OUT – GET THROUGH TO – GROW UP – KEEP UP – LET IN ON – MAKE UP FOR – PUT UP WITH – RUN INTO – SEND FOR – SLOW DOWN – STAND FOR – TAKE AFTER – TURN DOWN –¬†WORK OUT

  1. The burglars _____________________ the house and stole all the jewels.
  2. There must be something wrong with your mobile phone. I can’t _____________________ you.
  3. I __________________ an old acquaintance of mine at the airport. I hadn’t seen her in years.
  4. I told her to ______________________, otherwise she would crash into the car up front.
  5. What do the letters WHO ______________________? ‚Äď The World Health Organisation.
  6. We usually ___________________ at our favourite restaurant once a month.
  7. Please ____________________ the names you don’t want to have on the list.
  8. My teacher told me to stop being so childish and start ______________________.
  9. The pilot was able to ______________________ the delay caused at the airport.
  10. Jack ______________________ his father. He even walks in the same way.
  11. My boss told me to __________________ the good work. I was one of the best employees.
  12. I cannot ______________________ your bad behaviour anymore. I’m calling your parents.
  13. I hope everything _____________________ for you in your new job.
  14. I _______________________ the manager’s offer of a 10 percent raise. I demanded more.
  15. We had to ____________________ the doctor because his condition was deteriorating.
  16. I’ll _________ you ________________ a secret. ‚Äď I am getting married next summer.

Soluciones del ejercicio A

  1. The burglars broke into the house and stole all the jewels.
  2. There must be something wrong with your mobile phone. I can’t get through to.
  3. I ran into an old acquaintance of mine at the airport. I hadn’t seen her in years.
  4. I told her to slow down, otherwise she would crash into the car up front.
  5. What do the letters WHO stand for? ‚Äď The World Health Organisation.
  6. We usually eat out at our favourite restaurant once a month.
  7. Please cross out the names you don’t want to have on the list.
  8. My teacher told me to stop being so childish and start growing up.
  9. The pilot was able to make up for the delay caused at the airport.
  10. Jack takes after his father. He even walks in the same way.
  11. My boss told me to keep up the good work. I was one of the best employees.
  12. I cannot put up with your bad behaviour anymore. I’m calling your parents.1
  13. I hope everything works out for you in your new job.
  14. I turned down the manager’s offer of a 10 percent raise. I demanded more.
  15. We had to send for the doctor because his condition was deteriorating.
  16. I’ll let you in on a secret. ‚Äď I am getting married next summer.

Ejercicio B. Complete the sentences below, using a phrasal verb from the box in its correct form.

BLACK OUT – CALL OFF – CHEAT ON – COME BACK – COME UP WITH ‚Äď COUNT ON – MOVE IN ‚Äď OPEN UP – PULL THROUGH – PUT THROUGH – SEND OFF – SET ASIDE – SETTLE IN – STAND BY – STICK UP FOR – TALK DOWN TO

  1. She ______________________ when she hit the rock and couldn’t remember how it happened.
  2. The match was ______________________ because of the transport strike.
  3. You’re such a great friend. I know I can always ______________________ you.
  4. I need to ______________________ some money, otherwise I won’t be able to pay the mortgage.
  5. We are really best friends and ______________________ each other when we get into trouble.
  6. It took a long time for us to ______________________ because we weren’t used to living in such a big house.
  7. The doctors hope that the patient will ______________________ after a complicated surgery.
  8. After chatting for some time, he started to ______________________ a bit and told me about his troubled childhood.
  9. Mary discovered that her husband was ______________________ her and filed for divorce.
  10. After having lost the first two sets, he ______________________ into the game managed to win in five sets.
  11. My girlfriend ______________________ with me after we had been together for over a year.
  12. Can you _________________ me ______________________ to the headmaster’s office? I really must speak to him.
  13. The referee ________________ him __________________ after a brutal attack on the defender.
  14. My boss is so arrogant. I can’t stand the way he _________________________ the employees.
  15. Even though I don’t earn that much I manage to ____________________ a few dollars for hard times.
  16. She was a good wife and _____________________ her husband even when he was having an affair.

Soluciones del ejercicio B

  1. She blacked out when she hit the rock and couldn’t remember how it happened.
  2. The match was called off because of the transport strike.
  3. You’re such a great friend. I know I can always count on.
  4. I need to come up with some money, otherwise I won’t be able to pay the mortgage.
  5. We are really best friends and stick up for each other when we get into trouble.
  6. It took a long time for us to settle in because we weren’t used to living in such a big house.
  7. The doctors hope that the patient will pull through after a complicated surgery.
  8. After chatting for some time, he started to open up a bit and told me about his troubled.
  9. Mary discovered that her husband was cheating on her and filed for divorce.
  10. After having lost the first two sets, he came back into the game managed to win in five sets.
  11. My girlfriend moved in with me after we had been together for over a year.
  12. Can you put me through to the headmaster’s office? I really must speak to him.
  13. The referee sent him off after a brutal attack on the defender.
  14. My boss is so arrogant. I can’t stand the way he talks down to the employees.
  15. Even though I don’t earn that much I manage to set aside a few dollars for hard times.
  16. She was a good wife and stood by her husband even when he was having an affair.

Ejercicio C. Matching Phrasal Verbs

1. Carry ona. Tolerate
2. Go offb. Cancel
3. Get intoc. Continue
4. Put offd. Like
5. Be intoe. Delay
6. Putf. Start liking
7. Take upg. Become good at
8. Take toh. Start doing
9. Hang out (with)i. Stop liking
10. Call ofj. Spend time with

Soluciones del ejercicio C

1.C2. I3. F4. E5. D6. A7. H8. G9. J10.B

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